American Insects—Lepidoptera

Works Consulted

This is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography of the Lepidoptera, but rather it is a list of the books and articles that were consulted in the writing of the species pages.

Works Consulted

Allen T.J. 1997. Butterflies of West Virginia and their caterpillars. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Avilán L., Guerrero B., Alvarez E., Rodríguez-Acosta A. 2010. Description of envenomation by the "gusano-pollo" caterpillar (Megalopyge opercularis) in Venezuela. Investigación Clínica 51(1):127-32.

Beadle D. and Leckie S. 2012. Peterson field guide to moths of northeastern North America. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin. See also Leckie and Beadle (2018).

Becker V. 2009. A review of the New World Atteva Walker moths (Yponomeutidae, Attevinae). Revista Brasileira De Entomologia 53(3):349-55.

Conservation assessment for the West Virginia White (Pieris virginiensis edwards) [unpublished paper] .

Borror D.J. 1960. Dictionary of word roots and combining forms. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Borror D.J. and White R. 1987. A field guide to insects : America north of Mexico. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Bowers M., Crabtree R.C., Harrison S.P., Sobrevilla C., Wells M., Wolfe L.M. 1987. Predation on adults of Anartia fatima (Fab.). Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 41(1):75,75-76.

Brehm G. and Fiedler K. 2003. Faunal composition of geometrid moths: changes with altitude in an Andean montane rain forest. Journal of Biogeography 30(3):431,431-440.

Bridges C.A. 1988. Catalogue of Lycaenidae & Riodinidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). Urbana, Ill: C.A. Bridges.

Brock J.P. and Kaufman K. [2006.] Kaufman field guide to butterflies of North America. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin. Note that this book lacks a publication or copyright date, but apparently was published in 2006.

Burns J.M., Janzen D., Hajibabaei M., Hallwachs W., Hebert P. 2008. DNA barcodes and cryptic species of skipper butterflies in the genus Perichares in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. PNAS. 105(17):6350–6355.

Busck A. 1906. Notes on some tortricid genera with descriptions of new American species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 19:173-182.

Canfield M.R., Greene E., Moreau C.S., Chen N., Pierce N.E. 2008. Exploring phenotypic plasticity and biogeography in emerald moths: A phylogeny of the genus Nemoria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49(2):477-87.

Cassie B. and Sandved K. 2004. A world of butterflies. New York: Bullfinch.

Chacóan I. and Montero J. 2007. Mariposas de Costa Rica (orden Lepidoptera) = Butterfiles and moths of Costa Rica (order Lepidoptera). Santo Domingo: Editorial INBio.

Conner W.E., ed. 2009. Tiger moths and woolly bears: behavior, ecology, and evolution of the Arctiidae. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Constantino L. 1993. Notes on Haetera from Colombia, with description of the immature stages of Haetera piera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera. 4(1):13-15.

Covell C.V. 1984, 2005. Field guide to moths of eastern North America. Richmond, Virginia: Virginia Museum of Natural History. The 2005 edition reprints that of 1984, with a few new pages of updates to the taxonomy.

Cresswell S. 2020. Insects of Latin America: A photographic guide. 2nd ed. Buckhannon, WV: Trox Press.

D'Abrera B. 1995-2012. Saturniidae mundi: Saturniid moths of the world, based on the collections of the natural history museum in London. Keltern, Germany: Automeris Press.

D'Abrera B. 1981-1995. Butterflies of the neotropical region. Melbourne: Lansdowne Editions in association with E.W. Classey.

D'Abrera B. and Hayes A.H. 1986. Sphingidae mundi. Faringdon, Oxon. i.e. Oxfordshire: E.W. Classey.

Dang P.T. 1990. Redefinition of tribe Bactrini Falkovitsh and revised status of genera Taniva Heinrich and Hulda Heinrich (Tortricidae: Olethreutinae). Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 44(2):77-87.

Davies N., Aiello A., Mallet J., Pomiankowski A., Silberglied R.E. 1997. Speciation in two neotropical butterflies: extending Haldane's rule. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 264(1383):845,845-851.

De Morais A. and Brown K.J. 1991. Larval foodplant and other effects on troidine guild composition (Papilionidae) in southeastern Brazil. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 30(1-2):19-37.

De Toulgoet H. 1987. Note for the revision of genus Amastus Walker 1855, with critical examination of genus Hemihyalea Hampson 1901. 24th note. (Lepidoptera Arctiidae). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie 4(4):363-8.

DeVries P.J. and Penz C.M. 2000. Entomophagy, Behavior, and Elongated Thoracic Legs in the Myrmecophilous Neotropical Butterfly Alesa amesis (Riodinidae)1. Biotropica 32(4):712-21.

DeVries P.J. 2004. The early stages of Apodemia paucipuncta (Riodinidae): myrmecophily, a new caterpillar ant-organ and consequences for classification. 102:1-13.

Duarte J. and Schlindwein C. 2005. The highly seasonal Hawkmoth fauna (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of the caatinga of northeast Brazil: A case study in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 59(4):212,212-218.

Duarte M, de Almeida G, Casagrande M, Mielke O. 2001. Notes on the last instar larva and pupa of Hemiargus hanno (Stoll) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae). Revista Brasileira De Zoologia. 18(4):1097-1105.

Durán J., Fagua G., Robles J., Gil E. 2012. Sequestration of aristolochic acid I from Aristolochia pilosa by Mapeta xanthomelas Walker, 1863. Journal of Chemical Ecology 38(10):1285-8.

Dyar H. 1914. The life histories of the New York slug-caterpillars: XX. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 22(3):223-229.

Eaton E.R. and Kaufman K. 2007. Kaufman field guide to insects of North America. New York, N.Y: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Enrique Cardoso Peixoto P. and Benson W.W. 2009. Daily Activity Patterns of Two Co-Occurring Tropical Satyrine Butterflies. Journal of Insect Science (Tucson) 9(54):1-14.

Epstein M. and Corrales J. 2004. Twenty-Five New Species of Costa Rican Limacodidae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea). Zootaxa (701):1,1-86.

Evans A.V. and National Wildlife Federation. 2007. National Wildlife Federation field guide to insects and spiders & related species of North America. New York: Sterling Pub.

Feldman T, Haber W. 1998. Oviposition behavior, host plant use, and diet breadth of Anthanassa butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) using plants in the Acanthaceae in a Costa Rican community. Florida Entomologist. 81(3):396-406.

Ferguson D. 1993. A revision of the species of Nematocampa (Geometridae: Ennominae) occurring in the United States and Canada. Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 47(1):60,60-77.

Franclemont J.G. 1973. Mimallonoidea (Mimallonidae) and Bombycoidea (Apatelodidae, Bombycidae, Lasiocampidae). London : E.W. Classey: RBD Publications.

Neotropical Butterflies [Internet]. McAllen, Texas: Kim Garwood; c2012 [cited 2012 12/30]. Available from: .

Garwood K. and Lehman R. 2011, 2012. Butterflies of Central America: a photographic checklist of common species, 2 vols. McAllen, Texas: RiCalé Publishing.

Garwood K. and Lehman R. 2009. Butterflies of southern Amazonia: a photographic checklist of common species. 2nd ed. McAllen, Texas: RiCalé Publishing.

Glassberg J. 2017. A swift guide to butterflies of mexico and central america. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Gowin E, Williams TT. 2017. Mariposas nocturnas: Moths of central and south america : A study in beauty and diversity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hall J. and Harvey D.J. 2002. A Phylogenetic Review of Charis and Calephelis (Lepidoptera:Riodinidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95(4):407,407-421.

Hall J. and Harvey D. 2002. The Phylogeography Of Amazonia Revisited: New Evidence FromRiodinid Butterflies. Evolution 56(7):1489,1489-1497.

Henderson C.L. 2010. Butterflies, moths, and other invertebrates of Costa Rica. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Heppner J.B. 2008. Sedge Moths (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae). In: Capinera J.L. (eds) Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer, Dordrecht.

Heppner JB. 2003. Lepidoptera of Florida, part one, introduction and catalog. Gainesville: Florida Department of Agriculture.

Heppner J.B. 1984, 1995. Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. The Hague ; Boston: W. Junk.

Hogue C.L. 1993. Latin American Insects and Entomology. Berkeley: University of California Press.

The Moths of Borneo on-line [Internet]. Kuala Lumpur; c2002 [cited 2014 5/24]. Available from: .

Learn about butterflies: Amazon and Andes [Internet]. Leicester: Adrian Hoskins; c2013 [cited 2012 12/30]. Available from: .

Janzen D.H. 1984. Natural history of Hylesia lineata (Saturniidae: Hemileucinae) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57(3):490-514.

Janzen D.H. Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica:  Caterpillars, pupae, butterflies & moths [Internet]: Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania [cited 2014 12/14]. Available from:

Johnson K. 1991. Neotropical hairstreak butterflies : genera of the "Calycopis/Calystryma grade" of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae) and their diagnostics. Stevens Point: Museum of Natural History, University of Wisconsin.

Johnson K., University of Wisconsin--Stevens Point, Museum of Natural History. 1992. Genera and species of the neotropical "elfin"-like hairstreak butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae). Stevens Point: Museum of Natural History, University of Wisconsin.

Kaminski L.A. and Carvalho-Filho F.S. 2012. Life history of Aricoris propitia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae): a myrmecophilous butterfly obligately associated with Fire Ants. Psyche 2012:1-10.

Kitching I.J. and Cadiou J. 2000. Hawkmoths of the world : an annotated and illustrated revisionary checklist (Lepidoptera:Sphingidae). London; Ithaca: Natural History Museum; Cornell University Press.

Kricher J. 1997. A Neotropical companion: an introduction to the animals, plants, and ecosystems of the new world tropics. 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Kunte K. 2008. Competition and species diversity: removal of dominant species increases diversity in Costa Rican butterfly communities. Oikos 117:69-76.

Lalonde M, Marcus JM. 2020. Back to the future: Updates on the invasion history of Junonia butterflies in Florida and the mystery of Chokoloskee. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 74(2):83-94.

Lampe R. 2010. Saturniidae of the world: their life-stages from the egg to the adult. Munich: Pfeil.

Leckie S, Beadle D. 2018. Peterson field guide to moths of southeastern north america. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. See also Beadle and Leckie 2012.

Lee Sangmi, Brown Richard L. 2011. A new species of Euclemensia (Cosmopterigidae) from the United Sstates. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 65(1):47-50.

Linsley E, Eisner T, Klots A. 1961. Mimetic assemblages of sibling species of lycid beetles. Evolution. 15(1):15-29.

Loeffler C.C. 1994. Natural history of leaf-folding caterpillars, Dichomeris spp. (Gelechiidae), on goldenrods and asters. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 102(4):405-28.

Marín M.A.M., Peña C.C., Freitas, A V L AV, Wahlberg N.N., Uribe S.I.S. 2011. From the phylogeny of the Satyrinae butterflies to the systematics of Euptychiina (lepidoptera: nymphalidae): history, progress and prospects. Neotropical Entomology 40(1):1,1-13.

Marshall S.A. 2007. Insects : their natural history and diversity : a photographic guide to insects of eastern North America. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Firefly.

Martin A, Soares A, Bizarro J. Reserva Ecologica de Guapiaçu. 2011. Guia dos sphingidae da serra dos órgãos, sudeste do Brasil = A guide to the hawkmoths of the Serra dos Orgaos, south-eastern Brazil. Northam, England; Oxford, UK: REGUA Publications; Information Press.

McCabe T.L. and Vargas V. 1998. The Larva of Hypena manalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hypeninae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society (2):109.

Meyrick E. 1930. Ergebnisse einer zoologischen sammelreise nach Brasilien, insbesondere in das amazonasgebiet. Annalen Des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. 44:223-268.

Miller J.C., Janzen D.H., Hallwachs W. 2006. 100 Caterpillars: portraits from the tropical forests of Costa Rica. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap.

Morrow E.H. 2000. Giant sperm in a Neotropical moth Xenosoma geometrina (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). European Journal of Entomology 97(2):281-3.

Munroe E. 1970. Revision of the subfamily Midilinae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 74:1-924.

Nadkarni N. and Wheelwright N.T., editors. 2000. Monteverde: ecology and conservation of a tropical cloud forest. Oxford; New York: Oxford.

Nakahara S, et al. 2019. A revision of the new genus Amiga Nakahara, Willmott and Espeland, gen. n., described for Papilio arnaca Fabricius, 1776 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Zookeys. 821:85-152.

Nakahara S, Gallardo R. 2019. Scientific note: Reinstatement of Euptychia sericeella Bates, 1865: Amiga sericeella stat. rev., with corrigenda to Nakahara et al. (2019) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research. 29(2):111-114.

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Pearson H.R. 1984. (On the genus Tolypida Schaus, 1928 (Lepidoptera, Mimallonidae) with a description of a new species.). Revista Brasileira De Entomologia 28(4):459-64.

Peña C., Nylin S., Freitas A.V., Wahlberg N. 2010. Biogeographic history of the butterfly subtribe Euptychiina (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Zoologica Scripta 39(3):243-258.

Peña C.C., Wahlberg N.N., Weingartner E.E., Kodandaramaiah U.U., Nylin S.S., Freitas, André V L AV, Brower, Andrew V Z AV. 2006. Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40(1):29,29-49.

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Pitkin L.M. 1996. Neotropical emerald moths: A review of the genera (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 118:309-440.

Pitkin L.M. 1993. Neotropical Emerald moths of the genera Nemoria, Lissochlora and Chavarriella, with particular reference to the species of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae). London: Natural History Museum.

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Robbins R. 2010. The “upside down” systematics of hairstreak butterflies (Lycaenidae) that eat pineapple and other Bromeliaceae. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 45(1):21-37.

Robbins R, Duarte M. 2005. Two phylogenetically significant new Calycopis species (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. 38:27-34.

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Willmott K.R., Constantino L.M., Hall J. 2001. A review of Colobura (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with comments on larval and adult ecology and description of a sibling species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 94(2):185,185-196.